April 4, 2020 ~ Sh HAGADOL. M: RAHAWI-NAWA.

Raphael "Fule" Yanani

Courtesy of Ezra Martin Zayat, BUENOS AIRES.

Photos

Rafael Yanani with the choir

Life and Work

Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on the seventh of Heshvan, (תרפ"ו (10-25-1925, son of Yom Tov Yanani and Sara Sisro.

From very young, he was gifted with a prodigious memory and an incredible ear for music. Following in the footsteps of his father and brothers, he became interested in music and pizmonim, accompanying them Shabbat after Shabbat to the famous “Baqashot” which in those days were held at 2 or 3 in the morning.

He consecrated his entire life to music, studying at first with David Bouzali, and later with his brother David z”l. He never allowed himself to be called “maestro” as he held that in his profession one never stops learning, and never ceases to be a student.

We must highlight his unlimited generosity in teaching the young and old alike. Whether day or night, his devotion to directing choirs in his beloved “Shaare Sion” and wherever else needed, was purely with the objective of transmitting his knowledge, passing it from generation to generation.

Cognizant of his vocation and knowledge, the Great Hakham Isaac Shehebar z”l, requested that he compile a selection of traditional songs for every holiday and event, that it may serve as a guide for the “kahal” during the “tefilot.”

And here, inspired in the mystical Sefat of Israel’s Galilee, he presents us with his work “Shaare Zimra.”

Once more, dear Fule, thank you for your generosity. May the Almighty reward your efforts with long and beautiful years, and with the advent of the Mashiah, soon in our days. Amen!

Translated from "Shaare Zimrah" pizmonim book by Sofer Alberto Attia

Index of Recordings

Section Pizmon Page Song CommentaryRecordings Application
Baqashot 63 70 מרום אל חי שוכן ערבות Raphael Tabbush Maqam Rast Appeared in Tabbush's 1888 pizmonim book. It is written in honour of H Moshe Ashkenazie. Rast. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript F. Yanani
נקדישך
Rast 106 107 יום יום תמיד ישעיה חזק Opening of Maqam Rast. This song includes different maqamat. Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Mosseri-Kozli Manuscript Fule Yanani
נקדישך
Rast 107 108 מאמרי פי Hatan. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
Rast 108 109 חנון מרום Raphael Tabbush Shabbat Bereshit. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
Rast 122 115 מה טוב כאישון Raphael Tabbush For a Hatan that is a first born. Hamaoui Manuscript Fule Yanani
Rast 129 118 יאיר יזרח Shalosh Regalim. Fule Yanani
Rast 132 120 יחיד נורא Raphael Tabbush This jovial pizmon (RAST, page 120), composed by H Raphael Antebi Tabbush (deceased December 1918) of Aleppo, Syria, is one of the most important and popular songs for the festival of Pesah. There are four stanzas in this pizmon; corresponding to the four letter of name of God (Tetragrammaton). Within each stanza, there are multiple rhyming clauses. Although the melody of this song should not be applied to any of the pieces of prayers, this pizmon is used for the PIZMON SEFER TORAH (typically on Shabbat HaHodesh or 1-2 Pesah). Many aspects of the month of Nisan, including the Haggadah and the counting of the Omer, are alluded to in this special pizmon. In general, the composer gives praise to God for all of His kindness to mankind, and specifically to the Jewish nation for the Exodus from Egypt and the splitting of the sea. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 Fule Yanani
Rast 142 124 אני לשמך אהלל Raphael Tabbush סימן רפאל. Birth of a baby boy and the Pidyon HaBen. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
אל ההודאות
Rast 155d 132b חי אל נאדר Haim S Aboud F. Yanani
167.1 142l דגלי תשא על הרי Haim S Aboud Maqam Rast Fule Yanani
Mahour 178 149 עד ה' אלהיך ונשובה EAttiah Associated with the Days of Repentence. Hamaoui Manuscript Attiah Manuscript Ezra Attia Manuscript Fule Yanani
אל ההודאות
Ajam 205 168 מלך רחמן Raphael Tabbush Melekh Rahman (AJAM, page 168), or "Merciful King," is considered the ultimate wedding song. It was composed in Aleppo, circa 1897, by H Raphael Tabbush (d. 1918), for his close student, H Moshe Ashear (d. 1940), in honor of his wedding to Salha, the daughter of Mr Yaaqob Shamah. The acrostic is "Moshe" and names of family members (Moshe, Yaaqob, Shaol, Simha, Shelomo) are alluded to. The melody is from the Arabic song "Doom Ya Zaman." There are three stanzas in this song. The first two stanzas are from the point of view of the community; asking God to save the nation, and also to join in the happiness of the Hatan and Kallah on their wedding day. The third stanza, however, is from the view of the Hatan; asking to be blessed with the Blessing of Abraham. For Shabbat Vayesse, this melody can be applied in the prayers for Nishmat. The pizmon can be associated with this perasha, because we read about Jacob's wedding. Moshe Ashear and Family Fule Yanani
נשמת
Ajam 207 169 יחיד מגן Raphael Tabbush Maqam Girkah Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
Ajam 215 173 מקהלות עם Mordechai Abadi Torah or Hatan. A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 Fule Yanani
נקדישך
Ajam 220 175 אל מלא הנחסר Passover. Fule Yanani
אל ההודאות
Ajam 227 179 רועה נאמן הוא Raphael Tabbush Matan Torah. Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
כתר
Ajam 229 180 אל רם ארנן Raphael Tabbush Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
Ajam 230 180 ראה ה' כי צר לי Raphael Tabbush Shabbat Nahamu. Discusses the destruction of the temple and then ends with consolation. Fule Yanani
כתר
Mahour 254.991 203o ארנן אליך רם Raphael Tabbush Siman: Aharon. Song for wedding. Mahour or Ajam. Shir Ushbaha, 1921 F. Yanani
254.992 204i נעה מבית אביה Raphael Tabbush Maqam Girkah Siman: Ezra. Song for Bar Misvah. Saba or Girkah. F. Yanani
Nahwand 255 205 שרים רוזנים Wedding song. Fule Yanani
נשמת
Nahwand 262.1 208a ירושלים של זהב Naomi Shemer Fule Yanani
Nahwand 271 213 אחזה בנועם Raphael Tabbush The initials at the beginning of each stanza form the acrostic 'Ani Refael'. Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
פזמון
Nahwand 278 216 רחום אתה Raphael Tabbush "Rahum Ata" (NAHWAND, page 216) is composed by H Rephael Tabbush (Aleppo, ~1830 - Cairo, 1918), author of the "Shir Ushbaha" pizmonim book (1888). According to the notes of H Moshe Ashear, this song is reserved for Shabbat Beshalah (Shabbat Shira), and the Seventh Day of Pesah. There are 4 stanzas in this pizmon; corresponding to ר-פ-א-ל. The melody of this pizmon is called "Bafta Hindi," and can be applied to Mimisrayim on weeks of Maqam NAHWAND. "Merciful are You for redeeming us from captivity," the pizmon opens; referring to the captivity of slavery under Pharaoh. The second verse is a prayer to redeem us now and to send Eliahu the Prophet to herald the redemption. After we hear of the redemption, the third verse says that we will sing praises to God. The fourth verse mentions how on the seventh day after the Exodus, God rescued our nation by overpowering nature and splitting the Red Sea. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
ממצרים
Nahwand 279 216 יחיד רם חי לעולם Isaac Abadi Dahab Turkish melody. Fule Yanani
אל ההודאות
Nahwand 293.3 228b יפרח יה אבי Fule Yanani
Bayat 300 238 יחיד רם Raphael Tabbush First song at all Sebets. The initials at the beginning of each stanza form the acrostic 'Yosef'. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
פזמון
Bayat 302 239 נורא ורם Raphael Tabbush The pizmon incorporates the poet's name and hints at the shortest prayer in the Bible, "El na Refah na Lah", "Oh God, pray heal her now" (Numbers 12:13). The Text of this pizmon calls of God to "heal my sickness and pain". The pizmon also asks God to banish the "son of Hagar". Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
Bayat 305 240 יפת עין Ezra Attiah Siman "Yeshaya". Yeshaya is the name of his father. Pizmon for Abi HaBat. Fule Yanani
נשמת
Bayat 319 246 מעזי אז כלה קץ Raphael Tabbush “Mauzi,” or “My Fortress” (BAYAT, page 246), is a song that is very popular. H Raphael Tabbush is likely the author of this pizmon, but this is uncertain. The melody of this song is from the Arabic song “Baladi Askara Min Araf il Lama.” This song is associated with the Shalosh Regalim festivals due to a brief reference to them. The melody of this pizmon is typically applied to Shav’at Aniyim for weeks of Maqam BAYAT. Despite this being a song for the most happy of holidays, this song is actually very sad. It asks why has God abandoned us and why has the Messiah not yet arrived? It describes how our enemies have taken over our vineyards and have killed us. The climax of the song, “Al Damam,” describes how “my tears fall on their blood" (the blood of fellow Jews) and how our tears are enough to fill rivers. The four verse piece concludes with an open question: “Where has my Beloved gone; to Whom I rejoice three times a year?” Commentary on Pizmon Fule Yanani
שועת עניים
Bayat 326 249 ארוממך Simhat Torah. Many themes are in this pizmon including: redemption, bringing us to the time when we made pilgrimages tot eh Temple, to have mercy on Israel in exile. The Torah is mentioned throughout. Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
ממצרים
Bayat 336 257 רנה ותהלה ישראל Raphael Tabbush Rosh HaShana. Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
אל ההודאות
Bayat 388 312 שירו שיר חדוה Ezekiel Hai Albeg Benjamin Becker (Red Book) or Albert Levy (Mizmor Shir Book) Bar Misvah. Fule Yanani
נשמת
Bayat 391.081 318bc הלילה לילה לילה Moshe Eliahou F. Yanani
Bayat 391.082 יפת עמי יעקב Song for wedding. Argentinian book page 308. F. Yanani
391.083 239a מה נאזר Maqam Bayat For Passover and Succot. Argentinian book page 120. Shir Ushbaha, 1921 F. Yanani
Bayat 391.084 318al חכמה בינה יה אלי Pinehas Bobo Song for wedding. F. Yanani
Bayat 391.085 זבולי שוב יעקב עבדי Bar Misvah. Argentina Book page 317. F. Yanani
Bayat 391.086 יחיד ברך לעמך יעקב עבאדי Bar Misvah. Argentina Book page 318. F. Yanani
Bayat 391.087 אני אשיר בקול זמרה אליהו Bar Misvah. Argentina Book page 319. F. Yanani
Bayat 391.088 אל רם ונעלם יעקב עבדי Bar Misvah. Argentina Book page 321. F. Yanani
Bayat 391.089 בכתר תורה Argentina Book. F. Yanani
Mehayar-Bayat 406 331 מלך הדור Moses Ashear Maqam Kourd Wedding of Isaac Haim Massri; March 20, 1934. Leaflet Fule Yanani
קדיש
Hoseni 409 334 דעת ומזמה דוד חזק This pizmon, entitled “Knowledge and Discretion” (HOSENI, page 334), is a very sacred song in Aleppo tradition reserved for Matan Torah, the giving of the Ten Commandments. This song pre-dates most other pizmonim in our tradition; being older than 1850. The opening verse says “Knowledge, discretion, and words of wisdom; more than them, on the day Moses spoke; her (Wisdom’s) profit is greater than fine gold; this is the Law that Moses place.” There are a total of eight stanza’s in the original manuscripts; all ending with the word “Moshe,” and each phrase, containing rich biblical allusions, rhyme with one another. The acrostic of this pizmon, “David Hazaq,” indicates that the first name of the author is David, but his specific identity is unknownto us. The melody of the pizmon is from the Arabic song “Tazri Bel Ajafen,” and is only applied for Naqdishakh three times a year: Shabbat Yitro, Shabbat Kallah (the Shabbat prior to the Shabuot festival), and Shabbat Vaethanan. Attiah Manuscript Yabess Manuscript Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Mosseri-Kozli Manuscript Commentary on Pizmon Fule Yanani
נקדישך
Hoseni 423 344 בחר דודי Raphael Tabbush Matan Torah. Lists the Ten Commandments. Fule Yanani
Rahawi Nawah 436 359 אמונים ערכו שבח אהרן כהן Emunim (RAHAW, page 359), or "The Faithful," is an important Sephardic hymn for Pesah; specifically for the Leil HaSeder. It can be found in Mahzor Aram Soba (1527), making it one of our oldest pizmonim still in active transmission. It has the acrostic of "Aharon Kohen." Each of the 7 stanzas end with the words "Va'amartem Zebah Pesah..." (ואמרתם זבח פסח); referring to the commandment mentioned in Exodus 12:27 to offer the Qorban Pesah to God. Other Missvot relating to Pesah are also referred to, such as, eating Massa and Maror, drinking the four cups of wine, and retelling of the story of the exodus from Egypt (ending with receiving the Torah). The last verse ends "Your doings are wondrous; Your miracles are powerful; all those who seek refuge in You will say 'It is good to take refuge in the Lord' (Psalm 118:8)." The hymn is traditionally sung at the Seder in the Magid portion, and the melody of this hymn is applied to the prayers for Semehim of Shabbat Hagadol, and Naqdishakh of Ereb Pesah. Mahzor Aram Soba 1527 Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Yabess Manuscript A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 Fule Yanani
שמחים
Rahawi Nawah 438 361 בנה לי זבול משכני רפאל חזק Pesah melody. Attiah Manuscript Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Yabess Manuscript Mosseri-Kozli Manuscript A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 Fule Yanani
נקדישך
Rahawi Nawah 439 361 מי ימלל Mordechai Abadi This pizmon, (Maqam NAWAH, page 361), is composed by H Mordekhai Abadi (Aleppo, 1826, - Jerusalem, 1884), author of "Dibre Mordekhai," and other Halakha responsa. There are a total of 5 stanzas in this pizmon; corresponding to מ-ר-ד-כ-י. "Who can recount the strengths and wonders of the most perfect and wise?" the poem begins, and then proceeds to list the miracles that God orchestrated as the Children of Israel leave Egypt. Starting with the third stanza, the 10 plagues that occurred in Egypt are poetically described. In the last verse, after the festival of Pesah is mentioned, there is a reference to the belief that Pesah, a time of a previous redemption, will be the season in the future when "we will be redeemed." As per the Hazzanut notes of H Moshe Ashear, this song is reserved for Shabbat Bo and Shabbat Hagadol. The Ades synagogue in Jerusalem, however, has a tradition of using this song one week earlier on Shabbat Vaera. Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Fule Yanani
ממצרים
Rahawi Nawah 448 370 מפי אל מפי אל א״ב Maqam Girkah Simhat Torah. Hamaoui Manuscript Attiah Manuscript Yabess Manuscript A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 Fule Yanani
אל ההודאות
Saba 453 376 יהלל לאל נורא Raphael Tabbush Acrostic 'Yizhak'. Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
נשמת
Saba 466 385 יומא טבא דרבנן Yeshaya Bar Misvah. Fule Yanani
Saba 467 385 רם אמור Raphael Tabbush Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 Fule Yanani
Saba 490 403 אל חי ונורא Abraham Shabbat Bereshit. Fule Yanani
קדיש
Saba 492 405 יהי שלום Milah. For the birth of a baby boy. This pizmon is used at the Berit Milah. The initials at the beginning of each stanza form the acrostic 'Yehoshua'. This pizmon is taken from Mahzor Aram Soba, Sefer Shirim, Baghdad, 1906. An older version of this same song is found in Mahzor Aram Soba of 1560 (words vary slightly). Mahzor Aram Soba 1560 Shire Zimrah, Algiers, 1889 Fule Yanani - Different melody
בפי ישרים
Saba 493 406 אערך מהלל נבי אנכי דוד בן אהרון בן חסין חזק Written for the Berit Milah. Also for Parashat Balaq, because Pinehas is mentioned. Written by R' David Hassin of Morocco in the 18th century. Written about Eliyahu, who is the "Malach HaBerit" and is present in each Berit Milah. The song talks about the miracles of Eliyahu and events throughout his life. Also according to Zohar, Pinehas=Eliyahu. Yabess Manuscript Fule Yanani
שמחים
Saba 495 410 אתה אהובי אברהם חזק 'Atah Ahubi' is sung at all Berit Milah celebrations as well as on Shabbat Lekh Lekha. The initials at the beginning of each stanza form 'Abraham Hazak'. The pizmon consists of 6 stanzas, five of which end with the word Eyn. Generally, Eyn, is easily translatable as Eye or spring. In this song, a third meaning is used which is based on Kabbalistic significance of the Berit Milah. Here, the berit milah itself is called Eyn, meaning Wellspring of Life. Abraham Antebi. Attiah Manuscript Yabess Manuscript Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Shire Zimrah, Algiers, 1889 Fule Yanani
נקדישך
Saba 496 411 מה טוב מה נעים Mordechai Abadi Milah Abraham Sitehon Manuscript A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 Fule Yanani
אל ההודאות
Saba 497 412 מבטן ידיד יה קדש Mordechai Abadi Milah Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Fule Yanani
Saba 498 413 יחון אל צור יוסף Milah. Chanted during the actual process of the circumcision. Seen in Mahzor Aram Soba 1560. Attiah Manuscript Mahzor Aram Soba 1527 Fule Yanani
Saba 503 417 ידידי רועי מקימי ישראל חזק Yedidi Ro'ee Meqimi (SABA, page 417), whose acrostic is "Yisrael Hazaq," is written by H Israel Najara (1555-1625). This poem compares God to a shepherd who takes care of a flock of sheep. The sheep, mentioned at the end of each stanza, is a metaphor for the people of Israel. It is God, the shepherd, who rescues Israel, the sheep, from her enemies and who will gather a scattered people back to the Holy Land to rebuild the Temple. This relates to the Torah portion of Vayesse due to the reference in the last stanza to Genesis 29:9 when "Rachel comes out with her sheep." When Jacob is a refugee, it isn't until he spotted Rachel that he finds the hope needed to survive. On Shabbat Vayesse, the melody of this pizmon is traditionally applied to Semehim. Although SABA is not the "Maqam of the Week," the Hazzan should switch from AJAM to SABA shortly before Semehim to apply this important melody. Attiah Manuscript Yabess Manuscript Mosseri-Kozli Manuscript Fule Yanani
שמחים
Saba 504 418 איש אלהים קדוש הוא Ben Ish Hai Lag LaOmer. For R' Shimon Bar Yochai. Written by the "Ben Ish Hai" of Babel in the 19th century. Song is an acrostic (Aleph Bet) and has many allusions to the life of R' Shimon. Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Fule Yanani
כתר
Saba 512.09 429b רנה רנה רנה דוד בוזלי Shaare Zimra, Argentina book page 384. F. Yanani
Sigah 529 443 מצפה לזמן Raphael Tabbush Maqam Awj-Oj Fule Yanani
ה' מלך
Sigah 538 448 רזי עולם Raphael Tabbush Shalosh Regalim. Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
קדיש
Sigah 540 449 ארך זמני Pesah association. Fule Yanani
שועת עניים
Sigah 542 451 יחיד אל דגול מרבבה To welcome a Hakham. Hamaoui Manuscript Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Shir Ushbaha, 1921 Fule Yanani
בפי ישרים
Sigah 554 459 אברך את אלעזר Maqam Iraq Purim. This is the first pizmon that Gabriel A. Shrem has learned. Attiah Manuscript Sassoon Manuscript #647 Abraham Sitehon Manuscript Mosseri-Kozli Manuscript Shire Zimrah, Algiers, 1889 A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 Fule Yanani
שמחים
Sigah 555 460 אלי צור ישועתי "My God, the Rock of my Salvation; Why have you abandoned me?" is a translation of the first line of the pizmon "Eli Sur Yeshuati" (SIGAH, page 460); considered the flagship song of Purim. The author of this pizmon is said to be H David Yaaqob Pardo, although the acrostic written in the older manuscripts is "Asher Ben Yaaqob Hazaq." The song featured in most current pizmonim books is incomplete- only containing 5 stanzas; corresponding to the first five letters of the alphabet (אבגד״ה). In Aleppo manuscripts from before 1850 (such as Sassoon #647), however, this song has more stanzas. This song, consisting of references from Megillat Esther, contains rhyming sequences within each verse. The thing in common in each stanza is that the last verse always starts with the word "Chai" or life; proclaiming that despite all the hardships that we go through, this is life and God keeps us alive. This melody is applied to Naqdishakh on Shabbat Zakhor and on Purim. Sassoon Manuscript #647 Fule Yanani
נקדישך
Sigah 556 462 אל עושה נקמה This pizmon (SIGAH, page 462), whose first words are translated "God who makes revenge," is an entertaining song that retells the miracle of Purim using rhymes. There are a total of 22 stanzas in this piece; corresponding to each letter of the Hebrew alphabet (א״ב). Within a stanza, each clause rhymes with one another, except for the last clause of the stanza, which rhymes with all the previous stanzas. The pizmon, which is classified as Maqam OJ in the older manuscripts, originates from Aleppo and is older than 1850. The author of this piece is uncertain, although there is a possibility that it may be H Raphael Antebi Tabbush. The melody of this pizmon is from the Arabic "Ya Dini Yeaman," and is typically applied to Shavat Aniyim on Shabbat Zakhor, and to El Hahodaot on Purim itself. The song concludes with a prayer for redemption; to give good things to the Jewish nation in order to raise their spirits. Hamaoui Manuscript Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
שועת עניים
Sigah 557 464 אור גילה Raphael Tabbush Purim. A song of praise and thanksgiving for God's deliverance of the Jews from Haman. The pizmon, by Refael Antebi (19th century), has allusions to the Megillah as well its midrashim. The Jews got saved from the evil decree after prayers. Shir Ushbaha, 1921 A Z Idelsohn notes, 1923 Fule Yanani
אל ההודאות
Sigah 558 465 תם ונשלם Raphael Tabbush Purim. Shir Ushbaha, 1921 Fule Yanani
ממצרים
Sigah 565.01 472a קוראי מגלה Shaare Zimra, Argentina book page 394. F. Yanani
Sigah 565.02 472a דגלי דגלי F. Yanani
Hijaz 591 490 שמח נפשי Shelomo Hazaq Arabic is : Qado Kal Mayas. Fule Yanani
ממצרים
Hijaz 594 492 רנו גילו Raphael Tabbush This pizmon (HIJAZ, page 492), composed by H Raphael Antebi Tabbush, is a song written for Purim. Unlike other Purim songs, most of which are in Maqam SIGAH, this song is classified as Maqam HIJAZ; a maqam typically reserved for sad occasions. The acrostic of this piece is "Raphael Hazaq," and consists of 5 stanzas; corresponding to the letters of the author's name. Each stanza is followed by the chorus which begins with the words "Zekher Sadiq Yarum Hodo" etc. The song opens on a happy note ("Proclaim joy and rejoice all creations"); calling onto all the creations of the world to recognize the miracle of Purim. The middle of the pizmon is about the hard times and suffering that Haman put the Jews through ("the enemy conspired to be the head"). The last stanza ends on a hopeful note; calling for the Messiah and the rebuilding of the Temple so that we can offer sacrifices again. The melody of this song is applied to either Naqdishakh on Purim or Keter on Shabbat Zakhor. Tabbush Manuscript Fule Yanani
נקדישך
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