July 25, 2024 ~ Sh PINEHAS. M SABA.

Shabbat Yitro - שבת יתרו


אהלל ואביע הללויה
דעת ומזמה נקדישך
רועה נאמן הוא פזמון ספר תורה


וישמע - The word "שמע" does not simply mean "hear," but can better be understood as "listen." Although the two words are closely related, "hear" implies a simple perception of sound, whereas "listen" implies taking these same sounds, internalizing them, and paying close attention to them. In Exodus 18, two people internalize what they hear. Jethro, in Exodus 18:1 (וישמע יתרו), does not only hear the news about the exodus from Egypt, but listens to its message. The divine intervention experienced is so great that Jethro feels the urgency to go to the desert to declare his allegiance to God. Later in the same chapter, Moses, in Exodus 18:24 (וישמע משה), receives criticism about governing the nation inefficiently (i.e. everyone standing in line from morning until night). Moses then listens to Jethro's advice by establishing the judicial system thereby improving the situation. From the above examples, we learn that the most important part of hearing is to listen. Beth Torah Bulletin, February 3, 2018.

Yitro's Epiphany

עתה ידעתי - When the news of the Exodus reached the foreign nations, they temporarily feared God (שמעו עמים ירגזון), but then did little to correct their ways. By contrast, to show their complete rejection of God, Amaleq becomes the first tribe to wage war on Israel. To juxtapose these reactions, we read about Jethro, an outsider who was so inspired by the miracles of God that it causes him to open his eyes and change his entire outlook on life. Jethro is so happy (ויחד יתרו) that he makes a special trip to the desert to greet Moses. He then declares "Now I know (עתה ידעתי) that God is greater than all other gods." This powerful statement, coming from a polytheist, is testimony to Jethro's newfound belief in God, and is most welcomed by the elders of Israel as they joined with him in a sacrificial meal. The importance of Jethro is not that he had a major realization, but that he had the courage to take action (Beth Torah, 2/18/17).

Higher Accents

אנכי - There are two cantillation systems for the Torah; the lower sets of accents and the upper. The lower set of accents (ta'am tahton), the older of the two, is the set used for public synagogue readings. The one exception to this is the application of the upper set of accents (ta'am 'elyon) for the chanting of the Decalogue in Yitro and Vaethanan. An explanation for using ta'am 'elyon is in order to make it feel like a reenactment of the actual Matan Torah episode. The upper accents accomplish this more effectively than the lower accents, because the upper designates each commandment (except the first two) into 1 verse regardless of how long the commandment is. This is in contrast to the lower accents which divide the Decalogue into 13 verses. The upper accents render the first two commandments as a single one to remember that at Matan Torah (according to the Midrash), the people heard these two commandments directly from God as a single utterance. Tiqqun Highlights, Beth Torah Bulletin, January 26, 2019.

One Man Show

נָבֹ֣ל תִּבֹּ֔ל גַּם־אַתָּ֕ה גַּם־הָעָ֥ם הַזֶּ֖ה - When Jethro sees swarms of people standing in line from morning until evening waiting to consult Moses about their problems, he is deeply disturbed and voices his concern. He says that not only will you, Moses, surely suffer (and become fatigued), but “also this nation [will suffer]" (Exodus 18:18). It may be obvious why Moses will suffer from the long hours of difficult work, but why is the entire nation also going to suffer? What Jethro is trying to tell Moses here is that Moses can't do the job alone and that ultimately this nation will not be successful if it is a “one man show.” Instead, Moses needs to train many qualified leaders, or judges, within the nation to take care of the individual needs of the people. This is so one day, when Moses is no longer present, the infrastructure of the nation will continue without him. One might say that Jethro’s advice is the reason that the nation of Israel through the Jewish religion continues to survive and thrive to this very day. Beth Torah Bulletin, February 15, 2020.

Maqam of the Week: HOSENI

For Shabbat Yitro (Exodus 18:1- 20:23), the prayers are conducted in Maqam HOSENI according to the vast majority of Syrian sources. The highlight of the Torah Reading is the story of Matan Torah; receiving the Ten Commandments. HOSENI, the maqam that means "beautiful" in Arabic, alludes to the Torah's "beauty." Hoseni, which is described as "a high Bayat," is also applied in association with Shabuot, the festival that commemorates receiving the Torah. HAZZANUT: Naqdishakh: Da'at UmZima (page 334). PIZMON SEFER TORAH: Ahallel VeAbia (page 220). Sephardic Pizmonim Project, www.pizmonim.com.